Metales pesados en leche de vacas alimentadas con alfalfa producida en suelos irrigados con aguas residuales en Puebla y Tlaxcala, México

Numa Pompilio Castro-González, Rafael Moreno-Rojas, Francisco Calderón Sánchez, Alicia Moreno-Ortega, José Víctor Tamariz-Flores

Resumen


 El objetivo fue determinar la presencia de Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn y As en la cadena alimentaria de la leche de vaca, producida en zonas donde la alfalfa es cultivada en suelos irrigados con aguas residuales de procedencia industrial, doméstica y agrícola. Se muestrearon suelo y alfalfa de 16 sitios ubicados en cuatro zonas; la leche se colectó de 160 vacas, correspondiendo a 40 vacas de cuatro hatos diferentes por zona, todo en dos épocas del año y por triplicado. Se calculó el factor de bioacumulación (BCF), el factor de translocación (TF) y el valor de transferencia de los metales de la planta a la leche. Las plantas tuvieron un BCF <1, indicando que la alfalfa es resistente a los metales pesados. Sin embargo, el TF >1 en orden decreciente quedó de la siguiente manera: Zn; Cu; Ni; Pb y Cr, lo que muestra la existencia de gran movilidad de los metales dentro de la planta. La leche tuvo un contenido de Pb en un rango de 0.039 ± 0.02 a 0.059 ± 0.05 mg kg-1, valores por arriba del límite internacional permitido. Sin embargo, los niveles de Pb y As fueron inferiores a los valores permisibles por la Norma Oficial Mexicana. Se concluye que la alfalfa es una planta acumuladora y resistente a los metales pesados, y cuando es cultivada en suelos contaminados, se convierte en un medio importante para la trasferencia de metales pesados a los animales y son eliminados a través de la leche.


Palabras clave


Bioacumulación; Translocación; Metales pesados; Contaminación alimentaria; Leche.

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22319/rmcp.v9i3.4358

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