Uso de nisina y quitosano para la inhibición de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a antibióticos y asociado a mastitis bovina

Mónica Sánchez-Ceja, Ma. Teresa Arceo-Martínez, Ma. Guadalupe Sandoval-Flores, Patricia Nayeli Alva-Murillo, Rafael Jiménez-Mejía, Pedro Damián Loeza-Lara

Resumen


En este trabajo se describen los patrones de resistencia a antibióticos de aislados de Staphylococcus aureus obtenidos de vacas con mastitis, así como su susceptibilidad in vitro a nisina, quitosano y al compósito nisina/quitosano. A partir de muestras de leche obtenidas de vacas enfermas se aislaron e identificaron 53 S. aureus, a los cuales se les analizó el perfil de resistencia a antibióticos. Los resultados evidenciaron una alta frecuencia de resistencia hacia el grupo de los beta-lactámicos, principalmente a penicilina, dicloxacilina y ampicilina. Asimismo, se detectó multirresistencia en algunos aislados, ya que mostraron tolerancia a 3 o 4 grupos de antibióticos, destacando los aislados AMC-9 (resistente a tres grupos) y AMC-23 (resistente a cuatro grupos). También se resalta que todos los aislados fueron susceptibles a levofloxacina. Por otra parte, se analizó la susceptibilidad in vitro de los aislados a nisina, quitosano y al compósito nisina/quitosano, mediante la determinación de la concentración mínima inhibitoria. Los resultados indican que el 100 % de los aislados fue susceptible a quitosano y al compósito nisina/quitosano y el 47.1 % a la nisina. El efecto del quitosano y del compósito nisina/quitosano sobre los aislados multirresistentes AMC-9 y AMC-23 fue bactericida. Estos resultados revelan el potencial de los compuestos antimicrobianos quitosano y nisina/quitosano para ser utilizados como agentes terapéuticos contra la mastitis bovina.


Palabras clave


Staphylococcus aureus; Mastitis bovina; Resistencia; Nisina; Quitosano.

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22319/rmcp.v9i4.4468

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