Resistencia natural contra la tuberculosis en ganado. Revisión

Sara González Ruíz, Germinal Jorge Cantó Alarcón, Elba Rodríguez-Hernández, Susana Flores Villalba, Sergio I. Román Ponce, Feliciano Milián Suazo

Resumen


En México, la prevalencia de tuberculosis bovina se estima en 16% en ganado para leche, y en poco menos del 1% para ganado para carne, sin embargo, observaciones de campo indican que, a pesar de las altas prevalencias en algunos hatos (25-35%) y la exposición por largos periodos, la prevalencia nunca llega al 100%, lo que sugiere que algunos animales son naturalmente resistentes a la enfermedad. Considerando que la manifestación clínica de la tuberculosis depende de la interacción de factores del hospedero, del patógeno y del medio ambiente, es lógico pensar que las variaciones genéticas en el hospedero pueden estar asociadas a resistencia o susceptibilidad a esta enfermedad. En este trabajo se presenta el resultado de una revisión minuciosa de los reportes en la literatura sobre este tema. Se describen de manera resumida los trabajos realizados con el objetivo de identificar variaciones genéticas entre individuos que manifiestan la enfermedad y aquellos que no enferman en diferentes especies: conejos, venado, bovinos y otros, incluyendo al humano. Se hace mención especial en los genes más frecuentemente relacionados con resistencia, por ejemplo el gen Nramp1, y la manera en que estos están asociados a factores del hospedero, tales como la respuesta inmune. Se concluye que es posible identificar elementos moleculares que lleven a la selección genética de animales resistentes a la tuberculosis, y a otras enfermedades, que pueden ser incorporados a los procesos ya existentes de selección de ganado.


Palabras clave


Tuberculosis; Resistencia; Genética; Ganadería; M. bovis.

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22319/rmcp.v9i2.4396

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