Impact of increasing dietary oil concentrations with a constant energy level on the tolerance of broiler chickens to a high ambient temperature

Saber S. Hassan, Youssef Attia, Abd-El-Hamid E. Abd-El-Hamid, Sameer A. Nagadi, Amira El-ashry

Resumen


Broiler males (n= 140) were used in a straight-run experimental design and distributed randomly among four treatment groups with seven replicates per treatment and five broilers per replicate. During 21–42 d old, the chickens were fed iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets containing four levels of dietary vegetable oils (DVO), of 2.7, 4, 6 and 8%. During d 25–27, 31–33, and 38–40 of age, broilers were exposed to heat stress for 4 h a day (1000–1400 h) at 34 ºC, 70–75 % relative humidity. Feeding an 8% DVO diet significantly increased body weight gain compared to the other DVO levels. The feed conversion ratio, protein conversion ratio, metabolizable energy conversion ratio and European production index were significantly enhanced due to feeding an 8% DVO diet compared to a diet containing 6% DVO. Feeding 8% DVO significantly increased the meat protein and lipid percentages, compared to the control group (2.7 % DVO), but decreased the plasma low-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein and lymphocytes. Feeding 8% DVO significantly increased the mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin, and bursa weight and percentage compared to the control. In addition, 6 and 8% DVO significantly increased the plasma total antioxidant capacity compared to the control group, but decreased the malondialdehyde. Thus, broilers fed a diet containing 8% DVO have an increased tolerance to heat stress, as evidenced by increasing the productive performance, meat quality, blood hematological and biochemical traits, antioxidants and immunity.


Palabras clave


Broilers; High ambient temperature; Growth performance; Physiological response; Immunity.

Texto completo:

PDF (English)

Referencias


Daghir N. Nutrient requirements of poultry at high temperature. In: Poultry production in hot climates, Daghir, NJ editor, 2nd ed. CAB. 2008.

Syafwan S, Kwakkel RP, Verstegen MWA. Heat stress and feeding strategies in meat type chickens. World's Poult Sci J 2011;67:653-673.

Attia YA, Hassan RA, Tag El-Din AE, Abou- Shehema BM. Effect of ascorbic acid or increasing metabolizable energy level with or without supplementation of some essential amino acids on productive and physiological traits of slow-growing chicks exposed to chronic heat stress. J Anim Phys Anim Nutr 2011:95:744-755.

Suganya T, Senthilkumar S, Deepa K, Amutha R. Nutritional management to alleviate heat stress in broilers. Inter J Sci EnDVOi Techno 2015;4:661–666.

Veldkamp T, Ferket PR, Kwakkel RP, Nixey C, Noordhuizen JPTM. Interaction between ambient temperature and supplementation of synthetic amino acids on performance and carcass parameters in commercial male turkeys. Poult Sci 2000;79:1472–1477.

National Research Council, NRC. Nutrient requirements of poultry. 9th ed. Washington DC, USA: National Academy Press; 1994.

Aggoor FAM, Attia YA, Qota EMA. A study on the energetic efficiency of different fat sources and levels in broiler chick vegetable diets. Mansoura Univ J Agric Sci 2000;25:801-820

Attia AI, Hassan II, El-Zaiat AA, Abd El-Maksoud AA. Effect of dietary oil and ascorbic acid on the performance of broiler chicks under Egyptian summer conditions. Egypt J Nut Feeds 2003:6:Special Issue,3-4.

Ghazalah AA, Abd-Elsamee MO, Ali AM. Influence of dietary energy and poultry fat on the response of broiler chicks to heat therm. Inter J Poult Sci 2008;7:355-359.

Attia YA, Böhmer BM, Roth-Maier DA. Responses of broiler chicks raised under constant relatively high ambient temperature to enzymes, amino acid supplementations, or diet density. Arch Geflügelk 2006;70:80-91.

Lin H, Zhang HF, Du R, Gu XH, Zhange ZY, Buyse J, Decuypere E. Thermoregulation responses of broiler chickens to humidity at different ambient temperatures. 11: four weeks of age. Poult Sci 2006;84:1173-1178.

Attia YA, Hassan SS. Broiler tolerance to heat stress at various dietary protein/energy levels. Europ Poult Sci 2017:81:DOI:10.1399/eps.171.

Pesti GM, Bakalli RI, Driver JP, Atencio A, Foster EH. Lipids in poultry nutrition. In: Poultry nutrition and feeding. 1st ed. Canada: Trafford Publishing; 2015.

Mcnaughton JL, Reece FN. Response of broiler chickens to dietary energy and lysine levels in a warn environment. Poult Sci 1984;63:1170–1174.

Al-Harthi MA, El-Deek AA, Al-Harbi BL. Interrelation ships among triiodothyronine T3), energy and sex on nutritional and physiological responses of heat stressed broilers. Egypt Poult Sci 2002;22:349-385.

Lou SM, Colian A, Shahroudi FE, Mahallati MN, Nermanshahi H. Effect of energy level and time of feed replacement from starter to finisher diets of broiler weighing less than two kg. J Sci Techn Agric 2003;7:153-161.

Raju MVLN, Sunder GS, Chawak MM, Rao SVR, Sandagopan VR. Response of naked neck (nana) and normal (nana) broiler chickens to dietary energy levels in a subtropical climate. Br Poult Sci 2004;45:186-193.

Sinurat AP, Balnave D. Effect of dietary amino acids and metabolizable energy on the performance of broilers kept at high temperatures. Br Poult Sci 1985:26:117-128.

Baghel RPS, Pradhan K. Effect of season and age on the utilization of metabolizable energy by broilers. Indian J Anim Sci 1990;60:239-242.

Hoffmann L, Schiemann R, Klein M. Energy metabolism of growing broilers in relation to environmental temperature. Archiv Anim Nutr 1991;41:167-181.

Attia YA, Hassan RA, Qota MA. Recovery from adverse effects of heat stress on slow-growing chicks in the tropics 1: Effect of ascorbic acid and different levels of betaine. Trop Anim Health Prod 2009;41:807-818.

Volvoinskaia VP, Kelman BY. Modification of water holding capacity method of meat. FD Industry Musco 1962:11:80.

Husani SA, Deatherage FB, Kunlkle LE. Studies on meat.11: Observations on relation of biochemical factors to change in tenderness. Feed Technol 1950;4:366-369.

Aitken A, Case JC, Penny IF, Dvolys CA. Effect of drying temperature in the accelerated freezes drying of pork. J Feed Sci 1962;75:505-513.

Association of Official Analytical Chemists, AOAC. Official method of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Sidny Williams editor. 164th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc Arlington, Virginia, USA. 2004.

Eilers RI. Notification of final adaptation of an international method and standard solution for haemoglobin omety: specific for preparation of standard solution. Am J Clin Path 1967;47:212-314.

Hepler OE. Manual of clinical laboratory methods. Thomas, sparing field Illinois, USA. 1966.

Lucas AM, Jamroz C. Atlas of avian haematology. Agriculture Monograph. 1961:25: USDA Washington, DC.

Leijh PC, Van Furth R, Van Zwet TL. In vitro determination of phagocytosis and intracellular killing by polymorphonuclear and mononuclear phagocytes. In: Weir MD, et al, editors. Handbook of experimental immunology. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1986.

Trinder P. Determination of glucose in blood using glucose oxidase with an alternative oxygen acceptor. Ann Clin Biochem 1969;6:24-27.

Weichselbaum TE. An accurate and rapid methods for determination of proteins in small amount of blood, serum and plasma. Am J Clin Pathol 1946;16:40-48.

Doumas BT, Watson D, Biggs HG. Albumin standards and the measurement of blood albumin with bromocisol green. Clin Chem Acta 1977;31:87-96.

Coles EH. Veterinary clinical pathology. Philadelphia, London, Toronto: WB Saunder, Company; 1974.

Reitman S, Frankel S. Calorimetric method for the determination of blood aminotransferase enzymatic activities. Am Clin Path 1957;28:56-63.

Bartles H, Bohmer M, Heirli C. Serum creatinine determination without protein precipitation. [Article in German] Clin Chem Acta 1972;37:193-197.

Sampson EJ, Baird MA, Burtis CA, Smith EM, Witte DL, Bayse DD. A coupled-enzyme equilibrium method for urea measuring in serum. Optimization and evaluation of the AACC study group on urea candidate reference method. Clin Chem 1980;26:816-826.

Kind PRN, King EJ. Estimation of plasma phosphatase by determination of hydrolysed phenol with amino-antipyrine. J Clin Path 1954;7:322-326.

Randrup A. A specific and reasonably accurate method for routine determination of plasma triglyceride. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1960;12:1-9.

Watson D. A simple method for determination of serum cholesterol. Clin Chem Acta 1960;5:637-643.

Friedwald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 1972;18:499-502.

Wieland H, Seidel D. A simple specific method for precipitation of low density lipoproteins. J Lipid Res 1983;24:904-909.

https://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/vldl/tab/sample.

Koracevic D, Koracevic G, Djordjevic V, Andrejevic S, Cosic V. Method for the measurement of antioxidant activity in human fluids. J Clin Path 2001;54:356-361.

Richard MJ, Portal B, Meo J, Coudray C, Hadjian A, Favier A. Malondialdehyde kit evaluated for determining plasma and lipoprotein fractions that react with thiobarbituric acid. Clin Chem 1992;38:704-709.

Takatsy GY. The use of spiral loops in serological and virolegical micromethods. Acta Microbiol Acad Sci Hung 1956;3:191-202.

Kai OH, Nagase N, Ishikawa M, Suzuki K, Sato K. Effects propylthiouracial PTU on the immunological status of the chickens. Develop Comp Immun 1988;12:145.

Cosgrove AS. An apparently new disease of chickens. Avian nephrosis. Avian Dis 1962;6:385-389.

SAS institute. SAS‏ User’s Guide: Statistics. Version 5th ed. SAS Institute Inc. Cary NC, USA. 2009.

Mateos GG, Sell JL, Eastwood JA. Rate of food passage as influenced by level of supplemental fat. Poult Sci 1982;61:94-100.

Scott HM, Nesheim MC, Young RJ. Nutrition of the chicken. 3rd ed. Ithaca: ML Scott & Associates; 1982.

Aggoor, FAM, Attia YA, Qota EMA. A study on the energetic efficiency of different fat sources and levels in broiler chick vegetable diets. Mansoura Univ. J Agric Sci 2000;25:801-820

Hurwitz S, Weisselberg M, Eisner U, Bartov I, Risenfeld G, Sharvit M, Niv A, Bornstein S. The energy requirements and performance of growing chickens and turkeys as affected by environmental temperature. Poult Sci 1980;59:2290-2299.

Brake J, Balnave D, Dibner JJ. Optimum dietary arginine: lysine ratio for broiler chickens is altered during heat stress in association with changes in intestinal uptake and dietary sodium chloride. Br Poult Sci 1998;39:639-647.

Attia YA, El-Tahawy WS, Abd El-Hamid AE, Nizza A, El-Kelway MI, Al-Harthi MA, Bovera F. Effect of feed form, pellet diameter and enzymes supplementation on carcass characteristics, meat quality, blood plasma constituents and stress indicators of broilers. Archiv Tierzucht 2014;57:30:1-14, doi: 10.7482/0003-9438-57-030.

Abaza M. Immune system and some physiological aspects in Japanese quail affected by antioxidants. Egypt Poult Sci J 2002;22:259–276.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22319/rmcp.v9i2.4377

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.




Copyright (c) 2018

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0 Internacional.

  

Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias
CENID-Microbiología Animal, Km. 15.5 Carretera México-Toluca, Colonia Palo Alto
México, D.F. C.P. 05110
Tel. 01 (55) 38718700 Exts. 80306 - 80316 
 


Licencia Creative Commons
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias por
Esta obra está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0 Internacional