Endometritis subclínica y tasa de gestación en vacas lecheras en México

José Luis Barajas Merchan, Joel Hernández Cerón, Andrés García Alfonso, Enrique Martínez Bárcenas, Noé Orlando Juárez López, Mario Adán Bedolla Alva, Rodolfo Luzbel de la Sota

Resumen


En el presente estudio se determinó la prevalencia de endometritis subclínica y su efecto en la tasa de gestación en vacas lecheras en manejo intensivo. Entre los días 35 y 45 posparto se seleccionaron 237 vacas sin patologías uterinas (vacas con útero involucionado y sin secreciones vaginales anormales); a todas ellas se les tomó una muestra citológica de endometrio mediante la técnica de Cytobrush. Los frotis se procesaron con la tinción de Diff-Quick. Se contaron un total de 200 células y se determinó la proporción de células polimorfo nucleares (PMN). Las vacas con ≥ 6 % de PMN se consideraron con endometritis subclínica. Cuarenta y tres por ciento (103/237) de las vacas presentó endometritis subclínica. Las vacas con puerperio patológico tuvieron mayor probabilidad de padecer endometritis subclínica que las vacas con puerperio normal (60 vs 36 %, respectivamente; razón de probabilidad= 2.69). Las vacas normales tuvieron mayor tasa de gestación en el primer servicio que la vacas con endometritis subclínica (31.4 vs 20.0 %; respectivamente; razón de probabilidad= 2.02) y la proporción de vacas gestantes en el día 120 posparto fue mayor en las vacas normales que en las vacas con endometritis subclínica (51.6 vs 37.9 %, respectivamente; razón de probabilidad= 1.98). Se concluye que la prevalencia de endometritis subclínica en vacas lecheras entre los días 35 y 45 posparto es de 43 %, lo cual disminuyó en un 11.4 % la tasa de gestación en el primer servicio y en un 13.7 % la tasa de gestación acumulada en el día 120 posparto.


Palabras clave


Endometritis subclínica; Ganado lechero; Fertilidad.

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22319/rmcp.v9i1.4324

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